The Tom Bearden

Subject: RE: Scalar electromagnetism
Date: Mon, 23 Jul 2001 12:16:17 -0500

Dear Mr. *****,

 Sorry to take awhile to answer your note and question.

 Unfortunately, just now there seems to be no methodical way to study what I called scalar electromagnetics, as no integrated textbook yet exists and the subject is still being developed.  However, there are certain papers and books that do shed much light on the subject.  I will list 50 or so of some of the more important of these for your convenience.

 I do not expect to see texts in the area in my lifetime, but perhaps in two decades.  The work will go faster, of course, once the West recognizes that this is identical to, or directly analogous to, the "energetics" that the former Soviet Union so highly weaponized, and to the resulting new superweapons that continue to be developed, deployed, and tested today.  Several nations including China are engaged in such weaponization. If the rigid scientific mindset against COP>1.0 Maxwellian systems (which are indeed present in the Maxwell-Heaviside theory prior to Lorentz' arbitrary symmetrical regauging to make the equations easier to solve), we shall very promptly have a permanent solution to the energy crisis.  Not a university presently teaches what powers a dipolar circuit, even though the basis for the correct answer -- broken symmetry of the source dipole formed in the generator or battery -- has been well-known and proven in particle physics for over 40 years.  U(1) electrodynamics used to design and build the world's electrical power plants does not even include the vacuum interaction or the spacetime curvature interactions, since it arbitrarily assumes the falsity of a flat spacetime and an inert vacuum.  One is tempted to adapt a phrase from Nikola Tesla, that this represents one of the most inexplicable aberrations of the scientific mind that has ever been recorded.

 At any rate, a close colleague and I have finally and arduously discovered nature's eerie mechanism by which any temporary overunity condition in an electrical power system is decayed.  We have filed a patent application on the process for transducing the decay energy into ordinary electron current, using it as an input to the system, and thereby "clamping" and locking a temporary surge of overunity into a sustained and stable disequilibrium in the vacuum exchange.  This makes possible the development and advent of self-powering systems, since classical thermodynamics and its infamous second law no longer applies.  Instead, the system is an open system far from equilibrium in its exchange with the active vacuum.  Hence, under the thermodynamics of open dissipative systems, such a system is permitted to exhibit five magical functions: it can exhibit (i) self-ordering, (ii) self-rotation or self-oscillation, (iii) output of more energy than one oneself inputs (the excess energy is freely received from the active vacuum), (iv) power itself and its load (all the energy is freely received from the active vacuum), and (v) exhibit negentropy.  Every charge and dipole in the universe exhibits all five of those functions, and these are EM systems a priori in that there is no such thing as an electrical power system without them.

 The best I can do is recommend some of the more important and pertinent references.  You can easily download my current papers from my website,  There are also many AIAS papers to be downloaded from a DOE website I list in some of the references below.

 Very best wishes in your research,

 Tom Bearden, Ph.D.


  1. Whittaker, E. T., “On the Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics,” Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 57, 1903, p. 333-355.  However, Whittaker's bidirectional EM longitudinal wavepairs should be reinterpreted per my Giant Negentropy paper.  He interpreted the phase conjugate wave of each wavepair only after it had been interacted with charge and thereby transduced to a re-emitted 3-space longitudinal wave.  So he interpreted two effect waves with no causal wave; i.e., radiation of energy without any input energy.  The phase conjugate wave, prior to interaction, is the causal wave and is totally along the fourth Minkowski axis  -ict, where the only variable is t.  Hence it is a time-polarized EM wave (a longitudinal EM wave lying on the fourth axis).  This is necessary also to agree with Mandl and Shaw's exposition.  The main point here is that there exists an "inner" 3-space EM structure inside every scalar potential and comprising it, and this structure is fed by EM energy transduced from the time domain (fed by time-polarized EM waves).  Since by superpotential theory all EM fields, waves, and patterns can be decomposed into two scalar potential functions with their imposed dynamics, then there is a far more fundamental EM that is "infolded inside" all the normal textbook electrodynamics.  This is where the unified field theory aspects and engineering is.  Every potential is already a true negative resistor, in that unusable time-polarized EM energy is received from the fourth axis by the source charge(s) of the potential, converted into EM longitudinal wave energy in 3-space, and re-radiated in 3-space in all directions. At any point in space in that potential, there is thus the continual exchange of EM energy from time to 3-energy.  This also fits the mechanism that generates the flow of time, and it very strongly shows that EM energy in 3-space, is not at all in the form we normally consider.  Instead of being "some 3-energy only", it is a dynamic ongoing process whereby transduction of time-energy into "3-space energy" is occurring continuously.  When we "observe" or "detect" that by interacting with another charge, we impose a d/dt operator upon the 4-space LLLT process, thus producing a frozen LLL snapshot which itself only exists for that instant.  No observable "exists in time", since time is well-known to not be an observable.  A photon, however, is a piece of action (angular momentum), not a piece of energy as is mistakenly said in half the textbooks.  It is an entity transporting (i) one piece of what we call 3-spatial energy, and (ii) one piece of what we call "time" which may be considered as 3-space EM energy compressed by c-squared.  The highest energy photon is the low frequency photon, since spatial energy and time energy are canonical in it, and the time-energy component is increased by the same factor that the spatial energy is reduced.  Further, since the time-energy is multiplied by the factor c-squared when it is transduced to spatial energy, there is enormously more compressed spatial energy in the low frequency photon than the small uncompressed spatial energy it transports.  The highest energy physics, far beyond what our present high energy physics uses, is performed by low energy photons, in the presence of transduction of some or all of the time-energy into  uncompressed 3-energy.
  2. Whittaker, E. T.,  “On an Expression of the Electromagnetic Field Due to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions,” Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., Series 2, Vol. 1, 1904, p. 367-372.  The paper was published in 1904 and orally delivered in 1903.  This paper initiated what today is called superpotential theory.  The important thing is that combining both Whittaker 1903 and Whittaker 1904 gives you the highly active EM that is infolded inside every ordinary EM field, wave, pattern, etc.  Scientists have been looking at the "envelope" of that dramatic, infolded EM that yields direct engineering of unified field theory, and looking "outside" the envelope for that unification, when for a century it has been there inside the envelope, right beneath our noses.
  3. Sachs, Mendel, General Relativity and Matter: A Spinor Field Theory from Fermis to Light-Years (Fundamental Theories of Physics),  Reidel (now Kluwer), 1982.  Provides a great generalization of general relativity and electrodynamics reaching from the quarks and gluons to the entire universe.
  4. Sachs, Mendel, Quantum Mechanics from General Relativity: An Approximation for a Theory of Inertia, Reidel (now Kluwer), 1986.  A generalization of quantum mechanics is demonstrated in the context of general relativity, following from a generally covariant field theory of inertia.  Nonrelativistically, the formalism corresponds with linear quantum mechanics.  In the limit of special relativity, nonlinearity remains and several new features are derived: (i) Particle-antiparticle pairs do not annihilate; an exact bound state solution is derived corresponding with all experimental facts about annihilation/creation—which, in approximation, gives the blackbody radiation spectrum for a sea of such pairs. (ii) a result is proven, without approximation, that is physically equivalent to the Pauli exclusion principle—which in linear approximation gives the totally antisymmetrised main-body wave function and Fermi-Dirac statistics.  (iii) The hydrogen spectrum is derived, including the Lamb shifts, in agreement with experiment; new results are found for high-energy electron-proton scattering.  (iv) Finally, several applications to the elementary particle domain are demonstrated, in agreement with results from experimental high-energy physics.
  5. Sachs, Mendel, The Field Concept in Contemporary Science, Charles C. Thomas Publishers, 1973.  A lucid, non-mathematical account of the role of the continuous field concept in three major areas of twentieth century science: the theory of electromagnetism, the theory of relativity, and the contemporary theory that underlies phenomena in the microscopic domain of atoms, molecules, and elementary particles -- the quantum theory.  Electromagnetic theory has been interpreted in terms of a continuous field of potential force that electrically charged matter could exert on other charged matter, should the test matter be placed at any of a continuum of spatial points.  The formal expression of the theory of relativity has been interpreted in terms of a continuous field geometry—the continuous set of relations between the points of spacetime, as determined by the matter distribution of a physically closed system.  The variables of the quantum theory have been interpreted in terms of a field of probability—the continuous distribution of a sequence of chances that a macroscopic apparatus will determine that the microscopic object will have one set of physical properties or another.  Each of these field theories is analyzed from the point of view of its philosophical content, and the contrasting views in terms of the atomistic theories are presented.  Discussion is given to the logically dichotomous and compatible aspects of these theories as well as indications of possible paths toward their unification into a general field theory of matter.  Biographical backgrounds are given of the chief scientists whose works are discussed.
  6. Sachs, Mendel.  "Relativistic Implications in Electromagnetic Field Theory," in T. W. Barrett and D. M. Grimes, eds., Advanced Electromagnetism, World Scientific, 1995, p. 541-559.  The most general expression for the field theory is in terms of spinor and quaternion variables, rather than the vector and tensor variables of the conventional expression of Maxwell's theory.  This generalized expression leads to extra conservation laws and invariants, thus increasing the predictive capacity of the theory.
  7. Anastasovski, P. K.; T. E. Bearden, C. Ciubotariu, W. T. Coffey, L. B. Crowell, G. J. Evans, Myron W. Evans, R. Flower, S. Jeffers, A. Labounsky, B. Lehnert, M. Mészáros, P. R. Molnár, J.-P. Vigier, and S. Roy,  "The New Maxwell Electrodynamic Equations: New Tools for New Technologies," Journal of New Energy, 4(3), Special Issue of AIAS papers, Winter 1999.  60 papers by the Alpha Foundation's Institute for Advanced Study, advancing electrodynamics to a non-Abelian, gauge theoretic higher topology theory in (O)3 internal symmetry.
  8. Anastasovski, P. K; Bearden, T. E; Ciubotariu, C; Coffey, W. T.; Crowell, L. B; Evans, G. J; Evans, M. W; Flower, R; Jeffers, S; Labounsky, A; Lehnert, B; Meszaros, M; Molnar, P. R; Vigier, J P; Roy, S. "Classical electrodynamics without the Lorentz condition: Extracting energy from the vacuum," Physica Scripta 61(5), May 2000, p. 513-517.  It is shown that if the Lorentz condition is discarded, the Maxwell-Heaviside field equations become the Lehnert equations, indicating the presence of charge density and current density in the vacuum. The Lehnert equations are a subset of the O(3) Yang-Mills field equations. Charge and current density in the vacuum are defined straightforwardly in terms of the vector potential and scalar potential, and are conceptually similar to Maxwell's displacement current, which also occurs in the classical vacuum. A demonstration is made of the existence of a time dependent classical vacuum polarization which appears if the Lorentz condition is discarded. Vacuum charge and current appear phenomenologically in the Lehnert equations but fundamentally in the O(3) Yang-Mills theory of classical electrodynamics. The latter also allows for the possibility of the existence of vacuum topological magnetic charge density and topological magnetic current density. Both O(3) and Lehnert equations are superior to the Maxwell-Heaviside equations in being able to describe phenomena not amenable to the latter. In theory, devices can be made to extract the energy associated with vacuum charge and current.
  9. M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., "On Whittaker's Representation of the Electromagnetic Entity in Vacuo, Part V: The Production of Transverse Fields and Energy by Scalar Interferometry," Journal of New Energy, 4(3), Special Issue, Winter 1999, p. 76-78.
  10. "Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator with O(3) Electrodynamics," Foundations of Physics Letters, 14(1), Feb. 2001, p. 87-94.
  11. M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., "Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator with  the Sachs Theory of Electrodynamics," Foundations of Physics Letters, 14(4), 2001, p. 387-393 (in press); "Operator Derivation of the Gauge Invariant Proca and Lehnert Equation: Elimination of the Lorentz Condition," Foundations of Physics, 39(7), 2000, p. 1123-1130; "Effect of Vacuum Energy on the Atomic Spectra," Foundations of Physics Letters, 13(3), June 2000, p. 289-296; "Runaway Solutions of the Lehnert Equations: The Possibility of Extracting Energy from the Vacuum," Optik, 111(9), 2000, p. 407-409; "On the Representation of the Maxwell-Heaviside Equations in Terms of the Barut Field Four-Vector," Optik 111(6), 2000, p. 246-248.
  12. Bearden, T. E., "Energy from the Active Vacuum: The Motionless Electromagnetic Generator," in M. W. Evans (Ed.), Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Wiley, 2002, 3 vols. (in press), comprising a Special Topic issue as Vol. 114, I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice (series eds.), Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
  13. Bearden, T. E., Extracting Energy from the Vacuum: Concepts and Principles, (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002) (in process).  This book will contain some real bombshells, including nature's strange decay mechanism for decaying the disequilibrium state of overunity COP in an electrical power system, back to COP<1.0, and how to transduce that decay mechanism into additional EM energy input to the system, locking it into disequilibrium and COP>1.0.  It also introduces the concept of the supersystem, which includes (i) the physical electrical system and its dynamics, (ii) the local active vacuum and its dynamics, and (iii) the local curvatures of spacetime and their dynamics.  To properly analyze any COP>1.0 electrical power system, components (ii) and (iii) of the supersystem must be analyzed, as well as their interactions with the system, since the excess energy is received by the system from those additional two components of the supersystem.
  14. Bearden, T. E.  "Extracting and Using Electromagnetic Energy from the Active Vacuum," in M. W. Evans (ed.), Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Wiley, 2002, 3 vols. (in press), comprising a Special Topic issue as vol. 114,  I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice (series eds.), Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
  15. Bearden, T. E.  "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole," Proceedings of Congress 2000, St. Petersburg, Russia, Vol. 1, July 2000 , p. 86-98.  Also published in Journal of New Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 11-23.  On DoE open website and
  16. Bearden, T. E.  "Bedini's Method For Forming Negative Resistors In Batteries," Proceedings of Congress 2000, St. Petersburg, Russia, Vol. 1, July 2000, p. 24-38.  Also published in Journal of New Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 24-38.  It is also carried on DoE website and on
  17. Bearden, T. E.  "Dark Matter or Dark Energy?", Journal of New Energy, 4(4), Spring 2000, p. 4-11.  The prevailing theories of universe creation indicate a given amount of matter created, and still present in the universe.  For some time, half of the required matter has been unobserved by astronomers and astrophysicists.  Recently the missing half of the predicted baryonic matter was observed by the Hubble Space Telescope and announced by NASA.  However, there is insufficient mass to account for the gravity that is observed to be holding the distant galaxies together, as shown by observed star movements in them.  Some nine-tenths of the gravity is still unexplained by the predicted matter (now fully observed and accounted).  This is called the "dark matter" problem, where some form of matter previously unknown must be present and involved.
         In the present paper, Bearden points out the long-neglected nondiverged Heaviside component of the EM energy flow vector, far greater in magnitude than the accounted small Poynting component diverged around an interacting charge.  Heaviside discovered this enormous energy flow surrounding every circuit, but could not account for its source, since it was enormously greater than the small Poynting component diverged into the circuit to power it.  Lorentz arbitrarily discarded the bothersome vast energy flow, reasoning that it was "physically insignificant".  Since then, for a century electrodynamicists have disregarded it entirely.  This energy is in fact present in the neighborhood of every EM field interaction, and therefore is present at all interactions in the astronomical entities involved in those distant galaxies.  Since the Heaviside dark energy is a normal EM energy flow, it also must produce gravitational field.  Hence it must be at least a factor in producing, and may produce all of, the missing gravity.
  18. Bearden, T. E., "Mind Control and EM Wave Polarization Transductions, Part I", Explore, 9(2), 1999, p. 59; Part II, Explore, 9(3), 1999, p. 61; Part III, Explore, 9(4,5), 1999, p. 100-108.
  19. Bearden, T. E., "EM Corrections Enabling a Practical Unified Field Theory with Emphasis on Time-Charging Interactions of Longitudinal EM Waves," Explore, 8(6), 1998, p. 7-16.
  20. .]  Floyd Sweet and T. E. Bearden, "Utilizing Scalar Electromagnetics to Tap Vacuum Energy," Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC '91), Boston, Massachusetts, 1991, p. 370-375.  Sweet's device produced 500 watts for a 33 microwatt input.  A highly successful anti-gravity experiment was also performed, and is reported in the paper.  Unfortunately Sweet later died and never fully revealed the activation secret by which barium ferrite magnetic materials could be in self-oscillation at 60 Hertz.  Weak self-oscillation of such permanent magnetic materials at higher frequency is known, of course; e.g., see references by L'vov.
  21. Mandl, F. and G. Shaw, Quantum Field Theory, Wiley, 1984, under the heading "Convariant Quantization of the Photon Propagator" in Chapter 5.  A deeper coverage of the photon polarizations.  Mandl and Shaw argue that the longitudinal and scalar polarizations are not directly observable, but only in combination, where they manifest as the "instantaneous" Coulomb (i.e., electrostatic) potential.  Our comment is that this argument, translated from particle terminology to wave terminology, directly fits my re-interpretation of Whittaker's 1903 decomposition of the scalar potential, as pointed out in my paper "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole," Journal of New Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 11-23.    However, Mandl and Shaw fail to account for the assumed interaction of the detecting/observing unit point charge, and thus fail to account for the absorption of the incoming time-polarized wave or photon, the transduction of that excitation energy of the charge into longitudinal EM wave/photon energy, and the subsequent emission of that excitation energy in 3-space. Thus Mandl and Shaw missed the time-excitation charging  via absorption of the "coupled" time-polarized EM wave/photon, and the decay by emission of 3-space longitudinal EM wave/photon.  This interaction has been erroneously omitted in physics prior to our recognition of it.  So Mandl and Shaw do not account for photon (or wave) polarization transduction, where the "causal" time-polarized EM wave or photon comes in and is absorbed by the detecting charge or dipole, then re-emitted as the longitudinally polarized EM wave or photon in 3-space.  Recognition of these missing facts allowed at last a solution to the long-vexing problem of the source charge, often called the greatest problem in both quantum and classical electrodynamics.
  22. Ryder, Lewis H., Quantum Field Theory, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 147+.  Covers the four polarizations of the photon.
  23. Some of my earlier, cruder weapons papers and books are being carried on  In the future, I plan to add updates of these, probably in a sort of "members only" section.
  24. Conventional quantum field theory references and texts.
  25. Prigogine, Ilya (with T. Petrosky), "Laws of Nature, Probability and Time Symmetry Breaking," Physica A, Vol. 263, 1999, p. 528-539.
  26. Prigogine, Ilya with D. Kondepudi, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, Chichester, 1998.
  27. Prigogine, Ilya, with D. Kondepudi, "Thermodynamics, Nonequilibrium," Encyclopedia of Applied Physics, Vol. 21, 1997, p. 311-337.
  28. Prigogine, Ilya, From Being to Becoming: Time and Complexity in the Physical Sciences, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1980; (with G. Nicolis), Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems: From Dissipative Structures to Order through Fluctuations, Wiley, New York, 1977.
  29. Lee, T. D., "Can Time Be a Discrete Dynamical Variable?", Physics Letters, 122B(3, 4), Mar. 10, 1983, p. 217-220.  Also in T. D. Lee, Selected Papers, Gerald Feinberg, Ed., Birkhauser, Boston, 1986, Vol. 3, p. 77-80,  Examines possibility of time as a discrete dynamical variable, across the range of mechanics: from classical to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, and then to relativistic quantum field theories.  In all stages of mechanics, time can be treated as a discrete parameter, and it can also be treated as a bona fide dynamic variable.
  30. Lee, T. D., "Question of Parity Conservation in Weak Interactions," Physical Review, 104(1), Oct. 1, 1956, p. 254-259.  The question of parity conservation in b decays and in hyperon and meson decays is examined.   Possible experiments are suggested which might test parity conservation in these interactions.  Also in T. D. Lee, Selected Papers, Gerald Feinberg, Ed., Birkhauser, Boston, 1986, Vol. 2, p. 239-243.  Errata are given in ibid., p. 244 and in Phys. Rev. 106(6), June 15, 1957, p. 1371.
  31. Lee, T. D, Reinhard Oehme, and C. N. Yang, "Remarks on Possible Noninvariance under Time Reversal and Charge Conjugation," Physical Review, 106(2), 1957, p. 340-345.  Also in T. D. Lee, Selected Papers, Gerald Feinberg, Ed., Birkhauser, Boston, 1986, Vol. 2, p. 251-256.  Interrelations between the nonconservation properties of parity, time reversal, and charge conjugation are discussed.  The results are stated in two theorems.  The experimental implications for the K-K(bar) complex are discussed in the last section.
  32. Lee, T. D., "Weak Interactions and Nonconservation of Parity," Nobel Lecture, Dec. 11, 1957.  In T. D. Lee, Selected Papers, Gerald Feinberg, Ed., Birkhauser, Boston, 1986, Vol. 1, p. 32-44. "In the previous talk Professor Yang has outlined to you the position of our understandings concerning the various symmetry principles in physics prior to the end of last year.  Since then, in the short period of one year the proper roles of these principles in various physical processes have been greatly clarified.  This remarkably rapid development is made possible only through the efforts and ingenuities of many physicists in various laboratories all over the world.  To have a proper perspective and understanding of these new experimental results it may be desirable to review very briefly our knowledge about elementary particles and their interactions."
  33. Lee, T. D., "Is the Physical Vacuum a Medium?", Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, Series II, Vol. 40, Sep. 15, 1980, p. 111-123.  Also in T. D. Lee, Selected Papers, Gerald Feinberg, Ed., Birkhauser, Boston, 1986, Vol. 2, p. 213-225.  Goes into the structure of the vacuum past quantum electrodynamics.
  34. Lee, T. D., "Space Inversion, Time Reversal and Particle-Antiparticle Conjugation," Physics Today, 19(3), Mar. 1966, p. 23-31.  Also in T. D. Lee, Selected Papers, Gerald Feinberg, Ed., Birkhauser, Boston, 1986, Vol. 2, p.437-444.  "As we expand our observation, we extend our concepts.  Thus the simple symmetries that once seemed self-evident are no longer taken for granted.  Out of studies of different kinds of interactions we are learning that symmetry in nature is some complex mixture of changing plus into minus, running time backward and turning things inside out."
  35. Lee, T. D., "A Theory of Spontaneous T Violation," Physical Review D, 8(4), 15 Aug. 1973, p. 1226-1239.  Also in T. D. Lee, Selected Papers, Gerald Feinberg, Ed., Birkhauser, Boston, 1986, Vol. 2, p.516-529. 
  36. Lee, T. D., "C, P, T  Symmetries," in T. D. Lee, Selected Papers, Gerald Feinberg, Ed., Birkhauser, Boston, 1986, Vol. 2, p.472-485.
  37. Lee, T. D. and C. N. Yang, "Parity Nonconservation and a Two-Component Theory of the Neutrino," Physical Review,  105(5), Mar. 1, 1957, p. 1671-1675.  On p. 380-381, Lee shows how there is no symmetry of matter alone, but only of matter and vacuum.  On p. 383, Lee points out that the microstructure of the scalar vacuum field (i.e., of vacuum charge) is not utilized.  Particularly see Lee’s own indication of  the possibility of using vacuum engineering, in his “Chapter 25: Outlook: Possibility of Vacuum Engineering,” p. 824-828.  Our comment: Actually this vacuum engineering can be accomplished by the use of dipolarities and longitudinal EM waves, since all ordinary EM energy in space (or in vacuum) is merely bundles of longitudinal EM waves and their dynamics.  The input of energy to these waves and to every point of them is from precisely associated time-polarized EM waves.  Assemblies of such LWs fed by TPWs is called a "vacuum engine" or a "spacetime curvature engine".  Actually an organized set of spacetime curvatures is formed and used.  In theory, an "engine" can be designed and built to accomplish upon and in matter any action or set of actions desired, including alteration of the atomic nucleus and even alteration and change of the quarks and gluons inside the nucleons.  The action arises from every point in local spacetime, including inside the nucleons, hence there is no coulomb barrier involved.  It is even possible (has been done by the Russians) to develop entire functional systems, of such bundles of LWs comprising "engines".  Any function of a normal system can be built-in, in theory.  Thus the KGB developed a series of such nonmaterial "robot systems", under control by LW communications.  Mass is mostly empty space, somewhat similar on the microscale to a solar system on the macroscale, where the empty space between particles is filled with EM fields and potentials --- all of which are simply "superhighways" for longitudinal EM waves and nonmaterial robots.  It is difficult to make a single robot, but once made, any number can be cloned for pennies.  Simply embed the robot in an ordinary EM signal, record it on a CD-ROM, contact the new clone robot via LW communication, and add it to the arsenal.  Combat excursions and aggressive tests of such robots has already occurred.  In any great future conflict, such robots are likely to play a major role, if not the major role.
  38. Lehnert, B. and S. Roy, Extended Electromagnetic Theory: Space-Charge in Vacuo and the Rest Mass of the Photon, World Scientific, New Jersey, 1999.  Extended forms of Maxwell's equations as well as EM fields, based on a nonzero divergence of the electric field and a nonzero electric conductivity in vacuo.  Predicts the existence of both longitudinal and transverse solutions, space charge in vacuo, steady EM equilibria, a photon rest mass and a photon axial magnetic field.
  39. Lehrman, R. L., “Energy is not the ability to do work,” Physics Teacher, Vol. 15, 1973, p. 15.  Critiques the persistent non sequitur  that energy is the capacity to do work, as an incorrect relationship.  This non sequitur continues its almost universal use in textbooks. [In the nineteenth century T. Young introduced a definition of energy in terms of a relation between energy and work as "energy is the ability to do work."] 
  40. Letokhov, V. S., “Laser Maxwell’s Demon,” Contemporary Physics, 36(4), 1995, p. 235-243; V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., Vol. 53, 1967, p. 1442; “Stimulated emission of an ensemble of scattering particles with negative absorption,” ZhETF Plasma, 5(8), Apr. 15, 1967, p. 262-265.
  41. Lindsay, Robert Bruce, “The concept of energy and its early historical development,” Foundations of Physics, 1(4), 1971, p. 383-393.  Investigates the concept of energy from its early historical origin, from ancient times through the 18th century.  Points out that the heart of the concept of energy is the notion of  invariance in the midst of change.
  42. Lindsay, Robert Bruce and Henry Margenau, Foundations of Physics, Dover, NY, 1963, p. 283.  Emphasizes that a “field of force” at any point is actually defined only for the case when a unit mass is present at that point.  p. 217: When a system departs from equilibrium conditions, its entropy must decrease.  Thus the energy of an open system not in equilibrium must always be greater than the energy of the same system when it is closed or in equilibrium, since the equilibrium state is the state of maximum entropy.
  43. Lorentz, H. A., Vorlesungen über Theoretische Physik an der Universität Leiden, Vol. V, Die Maxwellsche Theorie (1900-1902), Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H., Leipzig, 1931, "Die Energie im elektromagnetischen Feld," p. 179-186.  Figure 25 on p. 185 shows the Lorentz concept of integrating the Poynting vector around a closed cylindrical surface surrounding a volumetric element.  This is the procedure which arbitrarily selects only a small component of the energy flow associated with a circuit—specifically, the small Poynting component striking the surface charges and being diverged into the circuit to power it—and then treats that tiny component as the "entire" Poynting energy flow.  Thereby Lorentz arbitrarily discarded all the extra Heaviside energy transport component which does not strike the circuit at all, and is just wasted.
  44. Lorenz, Ludvig Valentin.  (1867)  "On the identity of the vibrations of light with electrical currents," Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 34, 1867, p. 287-301. In this paper Lorenz gave essentially what today is called the Lorentz symmetrical regauging.  Comment: (by Terry Barrett)  This paper gave f(t-r/c) functions.  Fitzgerald said that Lorenz's functions were essentially the same as his, and Fitzgerald became a leading proponent of "retarded potentials".  But it is believed that Fitzgerald was unaware of Lorenz's work until the 1880's, so he is given credit for parallel development.  Some people talk of Fitzgerald-Lorenz functions.  This is a regauging, but the term "gauge" (inspired by railroad gauges) was first introduced by Hermann Weyl in the 1900s.  He used it for a change in length and was shot down by Einstein—Weyl's theory was not relativistic.  The idea resurfaced in the 1920s when quantum theory was being formulated, but this time it meant "change in phase" and not "change in length".  That's a far cry from its inspiration of changing railroad gauge.  Comment by T.E.B.: Thus "Lorentz" regauging of Maxwell's equations really was first done by Lorenz in 1967.  However, not too much attention was paid to L. Lorenz' work (e.g., by Fitzgerald).  When H. A. Lorentz later used symmetrical regauging (essentially Lorenz' regauging), his influence was so great that it was adopted straightaway.
  45. L'vov, V. S.,  Wave Turbulence Under Parametric Excitation: Applications to Magnets, Springer Series in Nonlinear Dynamics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994.  Self-oscillation in permanent magnets.  Professor L'vov is with the Department of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel.
  46. L'vov, V. S. and L. A. Prozorova, "Spin Waves Above the Threshold of Parametric Excitation," in A. S. Borovik-Romanov and S. K. Sinha, Eds., Spin Waves and Magnetic Excitations, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988.  Deals with the formation of self-oscillating spin waves which occur above parametric excitation.  These occur when internal stability does not occur, and evidence themselves as oscillations of magnetization.  The frequencies of the oscillations usually lie in the range from tens of kilohertz to tens of megahertz.  At small above-threshold ratios, the shape of the oscillations is nearly sinusoidal.  At larger ratios, the shape differs appreciably from sinusoidal.  At still larger ratios, the oscillations become chaotic.
  47. L'vov, V. S., Non-Linear Spin Waves, Moscow, 1987, p. 270.
  48. Mandelstam, L. [Mendel'shtam, L. I.], N. Papalexi, A. Andronov, S. Chaikin and A. Witt, "Report on Recent Research on Nonlinear Oscillations," Translation of "Expose Des Recherches Recentes Sur Les Oscillations Non Lineaires," Technical Physics of the USSR, Leningrad, Vol. 2, 1935, p. 81-134.  NASA Translation Doc. TT F-12,678, Nov. 1969.
  49. Maxwell, James Clerk, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field," Royal Society Transactions, Vol. CLV, 1865, p 459.  Read Dec. 8, 1864.  Also in  The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, 2 vols. bound as one, edited by W. D. Niven, Dover, New York, 1952, Vol. 1, p. 526-597.  Two errata are given on the unnumbered page prior to page 1 of Vol. 1.  In this paper Maxwell presents his seminal theory of electromagnetism, containing 20 equations in 20 unknowns.  His general equations of the electromagnetic field are given in Part III, General Equations of the Electromagnetic Field, p. 554-564.  On p. 561, he lists his 20 variables.  On p. 562, he summarizes the different subjects of the 20 equations, being three equations each for magnetic force, electric currents, electromotive force, electric elasticity, electric resistance, total currents; and one equation each for free electricity and  continuity.  In the paper, Maxwell adopts the approach of first arriving at the laws of induction and then deducing the mechanical attractions and repulsions.
  50. McCrea, W. H., Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, Vol. 240, 1957, p. 447-TBD.  Gives the general properties in tensor form of superpotentials and their gauge transformations.  His treatment is more concise than that of Nisbet, but entirely equivalent when translated into ordinary spacetime coordinates.
  51. Nisbet, A., Physica, Vol. 21, 1955, p. 799-TBD.  Extends the Whittaker and Debye two-potential solutions of Maxwell’s equations to points within the source distribution.  This is a full generalization of the vector superpotentials (for media of arbitrary properties, together with their relations to such scalar potentials as those of Debye.
  52. Debye, P.,  Ann. Phys., Leipzig, Vol. 30, 1909, p. 57-TBD. Introduces a solution to Maxwell's equations in terms of two scalar potentials.  These two scalar potentials are different from the two potentials utilized by E.T. Whittaker in 1904.
  53. Modern Nonlinear Optics, M.W. Evans, ed., Second Edition, 3 vols., Wiley, NY, 2001 (in press).  A host of papers on many subjects, many of them in O(3) electrodynamics and unified field theory, or directly related.


9 July 2001

Dear Dr. T. E. Bearden,

1. I am a M. Sc. electrical and electronic engineer from Technion, Haifa, Israel. I have a practical experience of about 30 years in industry. 

2. I am reading through your website and I understand that I have to learn a lot.

3. I tried to find some books you published (as Towards a New Electromagnetics Parts I-IV) and I did not find any.

4. Would you be so kind to teach about a methodical way to learn about scalar electromagnetics. For the moment I am interested in its application for human beeings and for electrical system.

 Thanking in advance for yours kindness yours sincerely