Sent: Tuesday, May 30,
2006 8:40 PM
Subject: RE: What
is the Source Charge [simple version]?
try. But first, please understand that,
since the source charge problem’s solution resisted the scientists for
nearly 100 years, it obviously isn’t going to be “too simple”. Otherwise,
those sharp young doctoral candidates
and post-docs would have solved it long ago.
tiny bit of background:
symbols, we will just use d/dt instead of “partial with respect to t”.
measure only CHANGES to an entity, never the “entity in itself”.
Measurement (referred to as “observation”
in physics) is a d/dt operation
imposed upon a change in spacetime (a change in L-cubed x t). So we have
d/dt (L-cubed x t) = L-cubed. All measurement or observation
produces a SPATIAL measurement or observation,
because time is nonobservable (because of the d/dt operation
that destroys it in the
measurement or observation).
instruments measure only quanta of change. A quantum of change has a
certain magnitude. At and above the magnitude, the change is “observable”
by our instruments. If the change is SMALLER than a quantum, then our
instruments do not detect it
at all. That
type of real but “too-fleeting-to-be-observed” change is called a
“VIRTUAL” change, as compared to an OBSERVABLE change. Merely indicates
the magnitude of the “virtual” change was not big enough to trigger a
physical instrument, so that
field or potential is produced by its associated
“source charge(s)”. When one speaks of a “charge” existing (and fixed)
at some point in space, then
surrounding it are its “static”
fields and potentials, reaching to infinity.
suddenly produce that charge
at the point, where it did not
previously exist before. Then from the moment the charge appears its
fields start appearing from it also, being emitted and spreading outward
at the speed of light. That
can be measured by our instruments, because what
are being emitted are quanta of EM “energy x time” and quanta are
observable/detectable. So the charge is “emitting” real, measurable energy
continually. It’s like an open fire hydrant, spraying out real “water”
(energy) continuously in all directions.
instrument known to man can detect or measure any ENERGY INPUT to that
leave the charge alone, that
beast will just sit there and continuously and freely pour out real
(observable quanta of) energy. Every original charge in the universe has
been doing it for some 13 or so billion years, and has not run down a bit.
That charge – if it is not
moved away or destroyed – will continue to sit there and pour out real,
usable EM energy for the NEXT 13 billion years, if the universe lasts that
the problem – the “source charge problem” – rests officially today,
without official solution. Since they could not solve that
embarrassing problem, they just swept the problem itself out of the
textbooks, so the students would not know about it and therefore would not
ask questions that could not be
little deeper in the problem:
So how do
we explain the fact that the
charge continuously radiates
OBSERVABLE (measurable quanta of ) energy, but has no OBSERVABLE
(measurable quanta of) energy input? How does the charge produce all EM
fields and potentials and their real EM energy, without any (detectable)
instruments measure only CHANGES in things, never a “thing in itself”. For
our instruments to detect some change, that
change has to be quantal in size -- in the magnitude of its “action”
(i.e., its “Energy x Time). If the change is less than one quantum,
instruments cannot detect it, and so the change is “virtual” (less than
are only two alternatives to
turn to, for a possible solution to the source charge problem..
(1) First, the
charge freely and continuously creates
that real energy, out of
at all”, and pours that
“created” energy out
continually in all directions. Ugh! This alternative
negates the conservation
of energy law itself (energy can neither be created
nor destroyed), and thus it destroys most of physics and thermodynamics.
(2) Second, the
charge freely and continuously receives energy in NON-OBSERVABLE form, not
detectable by instruments. But “nonobservable” energy is VIRTUAL energy,
where each energy change received as input to the charge is less than one
quantum of “energy x time”. Observable EM energy is comprised of quanta
(standard sized chunks of “energy x time”). So if the charge receives
energy in SMALLER chunks – each smaller than a quantum – the energy input
could not be “measured” or detected (observed) by any of our instruments.
But the charge would still obey the conservation
of energy law, and thereby this alternative
will save physics and thermodynamics.
still a problem with alternative
remaining requirement in alternative
(2) is that the charge has to
perform some process of integrating
those “too-small-to-be-measured” input chunks of energy it continually
receives and absorbs, into “big enough to be measured” output chunks that
it emits. In short, it must coherently integrate
its continual input nonobservable (virtual) energy chunks into observable
quanta-sized “energy x time” chunks, which are then emitted from the
charge in all directions.
vacuum/spacetime itself – in which the charge is embedded – is in fact
totally in tremendous and boiling formations
and disappearances of virtual state
changes – virtual particles of various and all kinds are continually
appearing and disappearing, very fleetingly but each being “real” during
that too-short period that
it exists. Here is the necessary “missing ingredient”: While it
momentarily exists, each virtual particle that
has appeared in the “seething vacuum” is totally ordered! It has no
disorder itself, but is just a perfectly respectable particle – with just
too brief a lifetime for it to trigger and instrument and “be observed”.
charge absorbs virtual photon after virtual photon, it is actually
absorbing ORDERED virtual photons. There is no disorder in what
it is absorbing. It also changes each virtual energy absorption to a
virtual mass-energy change in the mass of the charge. And those “ordered”
serial changes just add, because mass is already unitary.
charge is able to absorb only ORDERED virtual photons from the vacuum –
which makes it what is called a
“Maxwell’s Demon”. It is able to “select ordered things from a statistically
disordered medium”, thus performing a negative
entropy operation in violation
of the second law of thermodynamics. Don’t worry! Heck, lots of things
old second law. E.g., quoting Maxwell (who was a thermodynamicist as well
as an electrodynamicist):
of the second law is … a statistical,
not a mathematical,
truth, for it depends on the fact that
the bodies we deal with consist of millions of molecules… Hence the second
law of thermodynamics is continually being violated,
and that to a considerable
extent, in any sufficiently small group of molecules belonging to a real
body." [Maxwell, J. C., “Tait's Thermodynamics II,” Nature
17, 278–280 (7 February 1878)].
are many things which are already known and accepted to allow violation
of the second law (the law that
only entropy can be produced). E.g., Kondepudi and Nobelist Prigogine list
several of them in their standard thermodynamics text. [Dilip Kondepudi
and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat
Engines to Dissipative
New York, 1998, reprinted
with corrections 1999, p. 459. One area known to allow second law violation
is strong gradients (as used in the MEG) and another is memory of materials
(as used in the MEG in the nanocrystalline core materials
and structure). We strongly comment that
these known, recognized mechanisms allow macroscopic and significant violations
of the Second Law that are
directly usable in real systems and circuits.
rigorous proof that –
at least in theory – real
physical systems are thermodynamically allowed to produce continuous negative
entropy, is given by D. J. Evans and Lamberto Rondoni, "Comments on the
Entropy of Nonequilibrium Steady States,"
J. Stat. Phys., 109(3-4), Nov.
2002, p. 895-920. We nominated
the source charge and the source dipole as the first known physical
systems clearly producing such negative
charge is able to “select ordered individual particles from the statistically
disordered vacuum, this selectivity makes it a “Maxwell’s Demon”. Quoting
molecules in a vessel full of air
at uniform temperature
are moving with velocities by no means uniform though the mean velocity of
any great number of them,
arbitrarily selected, is almost exactly uniform. Now let us suppose that
such a vessel is divided into portions, A and B, by a division in which
there is a small hole, and that
a being, who can see the individual molecules, opens and closes this hole,
so as to allow only the swifter molecules to pass from A to B, and only
the slower ones to pass from B to A. he will thus, without expenditure of
work, raise the temperature of
B and lower that of A, in
contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics." [James Clerk Maxwell,
Theory of Heat, Longmans,
London, 1871, Chapter 12.]. Later,
Thomson nicknamed it Maxwell's intelligent demon.
absorption of individually ordered virtual photons from the vacuum means
that the source charge is in
fact a true Maxwell’s Demon.
mass-energy of the charge is already unitary, hence ordered. As a result,
the converted “virtual mass energy changes” effects of this ordered
mass-energy coherently integrates
– it simply adds. Thus the mass-energy increases to the next quantum level
of excitation in “energy x
time”, and the fierce buffeting of the charge by the vacuum interaction
just “knocks out” a real, observable photon – a real quantum. This is a
“Feynman ratchet” kind of
action, in which the charge “ratchets
up” more and more virtual energy until it has enough to emit a real
observable quantum – a real photon.
charge is also a true Feynman ratchet.
of acting as both a Maxwell demon and a Feynman ratchet
thus finishes the missing ingredient in alternative
2. If finishes the explanation
of exactly how the charge is able to continually absorb virtual energy
from the disordered medium and coherently integrate
that virtual energy into an EM
quantum of energy x time. Thus the charge simply sits there, without any
OBSERVABLE (quantal) input, and continually emits quanta in all
energy is free, free, free, as is “furnishing real EM energy from the
seething vacuum itself”! Every charge and dipole in the universe is
steadily doing that – pouring
out real, usable EM energy extracted from the vacuum. All EM fields and
potentials – including the so-called “static”
fields and potentials – are produced in that
fashion by their source charges.
don’t let anything scatter or
destroy that source charge (or
source dipole), it will sit there and freely pour out real, usable EM
energy for you to catch and
use, till the end of time – energy that
it has extracted and coherently integrated
from the seething virtual state
fluctuations of the active
EM energy in the universe is and has been so extracted from the vacuum,
and this process is ongoing in every charge and dipole in every EM circuit
and system, then every EM circuit and system is actually already “powered”
by “EM energy from the vacuum”.
But in the
1880s and later, no one could
think of any way to coherently integrate
the virtual state vacuum energy
bits into much larger, observable “real” energy bits that
make up the fields and potentials. The reason was that
the “vacuum” – which consists of violent fluctuations,
where for each fluctuation the
(energy x time) is smaller than a quantum of (energy x time) – is said to
be “disordered”. So how could such disordered energy be received in
couldn’t figure out the last part of Alternative
(2), and alternative (1) would
destroy physics. So they were unable to solve the problem, and were left
on the horns of a great
dilemma. To escape the dilemma, they just swept the problem itself out of
the textbooks, so the students would not know of it and would not raise
embarrassing questions that
could not be answered.
But a few
good physicists would mention it from time to time, in a physics book or
As Sen stated,
connection between the field and its source has always been and still is
the most difficult problem in classical and quantum electrodynamics." [D.
K. Sen, Fields and/or Particles, Academic Press,
New York, 1968, p. viii].
the question and problem rather
generally acceptable, rigorous definition of radiation
has not as yet been formulated."
…. "The recurring question has been: Why is it that
an electric charge radiates but
does not absorb light waves despite the fact that
the Maxwell equations are
invariant under time reversal?" [B. P. Kosyakov, “Radiation
in electrodynamics and in Yang-Mills theory,” Soviet Phys. Usp., 35(2),
Feb. 1992, p. 135, 141].
it might surprise many of our electrical engineers, physicists had not
(and have not) been able to come up with a complete theory of EM radiation,
since they could not explain it in a way that
obeyed the conservation of
energy law. That is, the
fundamental and continuous radiation
of “real” (observable) EM energy from every charge in the universe –
without any “real” (observable) energy input – could not be explained.
that long-vexing source charge
problem in 1999 and published it in
Russia in 2000. For
the publication, we
specifically asked the Russians to have some of their best physicists to
examine the proposed solution. They did so, and the solution “passed”
their review, so they published it as T. E. Bearden,
from the Common Dipole," Proc. Cong. 2000, St. Petersburg, Russia, Vol. 1,
July 2000, p. 86-98. We also got the paper published in Journal of New
Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 11-23. We published it in our Energy from
the Vacuum: Concepts and Principles, 2002. We have also slightly improved
the explanation during the last
two years, by adding the explanation
of why the charge is both a Maxwell’s demon and a Feynman ratchet.
of EM energy in a circuit or system is in fact “EM field energy” or “EM
potential energy” obtained from the associated
source charges in that
fashion. So all the EM energy in every EM circuit or system comes from
the interaction of the seething vacuum with the source charges and
dipoles in that system. It
does NOT come from cranking the shaft of the generator.
See my paper
on the functioning of the MEG and the action
of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
is a circuit?
For an EM
circuit, it’s a system of wires, functional parts, and operations
that receives and coordinates
EM field energy and EM potential energy, using it to produce energy output
in some usable form, or to produce useful work in a load.
Now we must
realize some modern physics (not electrical engineering!).
– even a single electron – polarizes its surrounding vacuum, so that
the surrounding vacuum is “charged” or altered to contain more virtual
charges of opposite sign. Further, the “bare charge” in the middle of that
surrounding vacuum polarization
– i.e., that actual electron’s
charge – is INFINITE! Whoa! We just left EE altogether, and we are now in
bare charge is infinite and it also has infinite energy, in modern
physics. And the surrounding “polarization
charge” of the vacuum also is infinite and possesses infinite energy. But
the two “infinite” quantities have a FINITE DIFFERENCE. And our
instruments – peering through this external “screen” of opposite vacuum
charge -- see and measure this finite difference – which is the
“classical” (observed) value of the charge listed in all the handbooks.
The actual charge is far more complicated
than that, has far more charge
and energy than that, etc.
Weinberg states it this way,
speaking of charges in an
energy of the
atom] depends on the bare mass
and bare charge of the electron, the mass and charge that
appear in the equations of the
theory before we start worrying about photon emissions and reabsorptions.
But free electrons as well as electrons in
atoms are always emitting and
reabsorbing photons that affect
the electron's mass and electric charge, and so the bare mass and charge
are not the same as the measured electron mass and charge that
are listed in tables of elementary particles. In fact, in order to account
for the observed values (which of course are finite) of the mass and
charge of the electron, the bare mass and charge must themselves be
infinite. The total energy of the
atom is thus the sum of two
terms, both infinite: the bare energy that
is infinite because it depends on the infinite bare mass and charge, and
the energy shift … that is
infinite because it receives contributions from virtual photons of
unlimited energy." [Steven Weinberg,
Dreams of a Final Theory, Vintage Books, Random House, 1993, p. 109-110.]
modern physics is far stranger and far more advanced in electromagnetic
effects and functions than that
old 1880s CEM/EE model used by the electrical engineers.
All we add
is, that ALL that
EM field energy and potential energy received from the source charge (and
thus by the receiving charges in the system) actually comes from the
vacuum itself, not from our burning fuel, putting in solar radiation,
inputting wind energy, etc. Simply check out the MEG and AB paper for the
explanation of what
happens to the input mechanical shaft energy to the generator,
caused by cranking the shaft. It only has to do with making the source
dipole inside the generator,
nothing else. Once that dipole
is made, the dipole receives and converts virtual energy from the vacuum,
into continually emitted real observable EM energy – producing all the EM
fields and potentials and their energy.
please be aware that there is
enormously more energy in every EM circuit or system than the electrical
engineer accounts for with his voltage and current and joules, etc.
Quoting Swann for a weak little old telephone cable:
the cables which carry the telephone current in the form of electrons. In
the absence of the current the electrons are moving in all directions. As
many are moving from left to right as are moving from right to left; and
the nothingness which is there is composed of two equal and opposite
halves, about a million million amperes per square centimeter in one
direction, and a million million amperes per square centimeter in the
other direction. The telephone current constitutes an upsetting of the
balance to the extent of one hundredth of a millionth of an ampere per
square centimeter, or about one part in a hundred million million million.
Then if this one part in a hundred million million million is
at fault by one part in a
thousand, we ring up the telephone company and complain that
the quality of the speech is faulty." [W.F.G. Swann, Physics Today, June.
1951, p. 9.]
he’s telling you is that, in that
silly phone line, there is about a hundred million million millon times as
much energy “going on” as is in the silly phone line signal input that
we ourselves furnish.
one does not input all that
stupendous EM energy to the phone line! Those charges in there are getting
it from the seething vacuum, continually. And boy, are they getting it!
How are the
As we stated
in the MEG/AB paper (and drew a diagram which I strongly urge you to check
again and again until it is well-understood).
precise definition of “work” is “change of form of energy”. Period. When
EM work is done, the energy is STILL existing, just in a different form
than when input to the “working” process.
electrical engineer (EE) uses “power” in a very wrong way, as synonymous
with energy. It is not. Power rigorously is the time-rate
of change of work. So power x time = work.
So when the
EE speaks of “drawing power from the source” he is speaking physics
nonsense. “Power” only exists where work (change of form) is being done.
So power is developed in that
specific component or part that
is “doing the work” (changing the form of the energy). From the source the
circuit or system receives potential energy flow, not “power” flow
suppose we crank the shaft of the generator,
thereby putting in mechanical energy. Well, when the rotor moves, that
movement changes the mechanical energy into rotating
magnetic field energy inside the generator.
Since that is a change of form
of the mechanical input shaft energy to magnetic field energy inside the
generator itself, that
requires work. And so we know we are “working” and producing work, when we
crank the shaft of the generator.
But none of
the internal magnetic field energy goes out onto the external circuit.
all the internal magnetic field energy is expended inside the generator
itself, just to forcibly push the opposite charges in opposite directions,
separating them, and thereby
making the “source dipole” in the generator
and on out into the external circuit.
(i.e., opposite charges) is one proven example of what
is called “broken symmetry” in physics. Broken symmetry was a giant
revolution in physics, for which Lee and Yang received the Nobel Prize in
symmetry (in physics) means that
“something virtual has become observable”, to use Lee’s words.
one forms a dipole (separates
positive and negative charges a
bit, by some distance, inside that
silly dipole thing will then continually absorb virtual energy from the
seething vacuum, coherently integrate
it, and re-emit the energy as real observable quanta – real EM energy
flowing out of the terminals of the generator
and along through space outside the conductors of the external circuit.
Some of this energy flow is diverged into the conductors and components of
the external circuit, potentializing them so they can then “change the
form of energy” and do some work for us.
This is what
the source dipole, once formed inside the generator,
actually does. Note that each
charge in the circuit, together with its polarized vacuum, form a dipolar
ensemble. So every “charge” with its vacuum interaction is indeed a
“dipole” and must therefore exhibit “broken symmetry of opposite charges”.
It thus continuously pours out real energy extracted from the vacuum, thus
producing and continually replenishing its associated
EM fields and potentials.
the shaft of the generator
produces the magnetic field energy inside the generator
via rotation of the rotor. That
dissipates all the mechanical
shaft energy input to the generator.
magnetic field energy inside the generator
is then dissipated in forming
the dipolarity inside the generator.
That SOURCE DIPOLARITY then –
by broken symmetry – MUST convert virtual energy absorbed from the vacuum
into real observable energy that
is constantly emitted. But forming the dipole inside the generator
dissipates all the rotating
magnetic field energy in the generator.
the dipole now formed inside the generator,
THE DIPOLE ITSELF continually extracts virtual energy from the vacuum
(absorbs virtual photons) and integrates
their “energy x time” into quantal size. Thus the source dipole inside
the generator continually
re-emits real, observable quanta, pouring out of its terminal and along
its external circuit.
We have resolved the long-vexing source charge problem, as well as more
accurately explained what
cranking the shaft of the generator
actually does. It creates the
rotating magnetic field that
in turn creates the source
means that every electrical
circuit is and always has been “powered” by the energy converted directly
from the seething vacuum by (1) the source charges in the circuit, and
specifically by (2) the source dipole inside the generator.
system ever built is powered by EM energy extracted and converted from the
vacuum, by the source dipolarity.
basis for all that has been
proven in physics since 1957 – yet the impact of that
revolution in physics has not made it across the university campus to the
electrical engineering department, in the nearly half-century since then!
is that physicists are quite
uninterested in “crude” electrical power systems. They simply shrug and
say, “For that mess, go see the
Electrical Engineering Department! I’m working on a new giant accelerator,
20 miles across, and we are going to bang those particles together with
much greater energy and force,
so they break into different pieces than before, and we will have some new
particles and some new physics generated
in that process”. Or something
like that. To most physicists,
there is much more exciting and fundamental work to be done that
“messing with” electrical power engineering.
And the EE
professor certainly does not wish to hear that
his own model is riddled with known falsities, with many things long
proven to be false in physics. Or that
he really does not know what
powers an EM circuit, and how. Etc. And usually he adamantly does not wish
to hear anything about “energy from the vacuum”, “the source charge
problem”, and so on.
So you can
see why I submitted the
“Errors and Omissions…” paper to the
for their review. And miracle of miracles,
it passed their review!
helps, and – together with the diagrams in the MEG/AB paper --- assists
you in understanding what
actually powers an EM circuit, and how the EM energy is actually taken
from the seething virtual state
vacuum fluctuations, and then
re-emitted as real, observable photons (real quanta).
Leslie R. Pastor [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org]
Sent: Sunday, May 28,
2006 1:02 PM
To: Tom Bearden
Subject: Your statement:
ZPE: Is not 'energy from the vacuum'
Can you clarify
from the Vacuum
is NOT zero point energy, since the latter
is an observable state
and the vacuum energy is nonobservable." -
T. E. Bearden
The problem, as
you already know, is that
ZPE is already acceptable.....a la Bernard Haisch and Hal Puthoff.
Describing the virtual state
as 'energy from the vacuum' is understood by me already, I don't
have a problem with it. But how do you describe 'virtual states'?
All the Best,
Leslie R. Pastor