|Date: Wed, 3 Mar 2004 22:50:59
The simplest way to look at relaxation time is this:
First, suppose the input potential is instantaneously applied across a conducting pair connected to a load, so that a difference of potential exists around the external circuit. The electrons cannot respond immediately, so for just a moment the potential flows freely down the circuit, without any electron current. Then the electrons start to move, overshoot a bit as they accelerate, then oscillate back and forth a bit.
Also, recall that electrons move longitudinal down the wire only with a drift velocity -- typically a few inches per hour. Most of the electron movement is laterally in the wire.
But for all this to get started after that instantaneous application of potential, the time delay occurs -- and a certain measure of that is known as "relaxation time".
Unfortunately, in a copper conductor it is so short a time that essentially one can make little or no use of the fact that the potential energy of the circuit can be freely changed without work (i.e., simply "regauged") while the electrons are not yet moving. So for normal copper conductors, one can forget it for any power applications.
On the other hand, something like an alloy of 1% Fe in the copper, as an allow, has a relaxation time that can reach a millisecond. So that is plenty of time for the potential, moving through space outside the wire, to move an appreciable distance along the wire, changing much of the potential energy of the circuit "for free".
There's plenty of time to switch before the end of the millisecond. So the source of potential can be disconnected and a diode switched across the input in, which will only allow current to flow from the ground side to the "high side". That way, the potential energy than one freely added to the circuit can be used for work, whenever the electrons come "unpinned" and start to move as current. The voltage x the current through the load gives the power in the load. Integrate over time, and that is how much free work in the load one can get, except for paying a little for switching.
Of course there are other ways also to "pin electrons" so they pause a bit before moving as current. Any reasonable "pinning" method, with very efficient switching, can be used to produce COP1.0. You will divide the work you get in the load, by the amount of work you do for switching, and that will be the COP of the system. It can permissible be greater than 1.0, and still obey thermodynamics because the system received excess "free" energy from its external environment. It was in nonequilibrium with that external environment during the time that the current was no moving. And a nonequilibrium system freely receiving excess energy from the environment is permitted to exhibit COP1.0, even though its overall efficiency will be less than 100%. The point is, provision of potential only, is not work and does not require work.
The present first law of thermodynamics as written for a hundred or so years contains, you see, a minor error. It defines the change of the magnitude of an external parameter of the thermodynamic system (such as the potential of an EM system) as work a priori. That is not true if the energy used to change the magnitude of the potential energy is the same form. Work is done only when the form of energy is changed, not when the magnitude alone is changed by adding more of the same kind of energy.
As presently written, the first law would prohibit gauge freedom, used and accepted by every electrodynamicist, quantum field theory, and gauge field theory.
I have read your book "Energy from the vacuum" and also the three papers " the final secret of free energy" Also I found the explanation by JL Naudin of the free energy collector very good. I want to try and construct a collector along the lines suggested. I have searched extensively on the internet for information on conductor relaxation times so far I haven't been able to find any tables of materials relaxation times.
From what I have been able to gather it works something like this from a layman's perspective.
The instant a potential is applied the free electrons are charged at the speed of light and start to accelerate toward the positive end of the conductor the speed of the acceleration being proportional to the potential difference applied. The electrons thus moving collide with the vibrating protons and fixed electrons losing energy and changing direction and must be accelerated again in the appropriate direction by the potential. The average time between collisions being the relaxation time.
My questions are these
1) If the collisions cause the resistance in different conductors is the conductance a reasonable indication of relaxation time.
2) If the electron speed is proportional to the potential difference then would a P.D. of milli or microvolts increase the relaxation time to a practical level.
3)(A thought) If the electrons are potentialized at the speed of light if we had a wire 186,000 miles long could we make the switching time 99/100ths of a second to get the wire 99% potentialized before disconnecting from the source dipole and connecting across the load.
Thank you for your time and keep up the good work